Eisenberg, Cristina

Chief Scientist, Earthwatch Institute
Courtesy Professor Research

Email Address: 
Educational Background: 
  • 2012 - PhD in Forestry and Wildlife, Oregon State University, College of Forestry, Department of Forest Resources
  • 2006 - MA in Conservation Biology and Environmental Writing, Prescott College, Prescott, Arizona
  • 1989 - BFA in painting, California State University, Long Beach

Cristina's Earthwatch Contact Info:
Earthwatch Institute
114 Western Ave, Boston, MA 02134
T: +1-978-450-1210 X 210 | earthwatch.org
Fax: +1-978-461-2332
Mobile: 406-270-5153

Skype: cristina.eisenberg
Earthwatch Institute


  • Ecological Society of America Editorial Board Member
  • Oregon State University Press Advisory Editorial Board
  • Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute Research Associate
  • Boone and Crockett Club Professional Member
  • Black Earth Institute Scholar/Advisor
Past Courses:
  • FOR-FW/445-545 Ecological Restoration
  • FOR460 Forest Policy
  • FOR 561 Forest Policy Analysis
  • FOR 599 Aldo Leopold and Ecosystem Management
Research Interests: 
  • Elk, Fire, and Wolf Ecology in Aspen and Grassland Communities in Waterton Lakes National Park: A Multi-Trophic Level Landscape-Scale Study.
  • Trophic Cascades Involving Humans, Keystone Predators, Elk, and Aspen in North-Central Colorado
  • Trophic Cascades Involving Humans, Wolves, Elk and Aspen in the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem
  • Southwest Alberta Montane Research Program

Grants Obtained:

  • Earthwatch Institute, 2015 – 2017, $150,000
  • Parks Canada Ecological Restoration Grant, 2010 – 2012, $150,000
  • Parks Canada Ecological Monitoring Grant, 2010 – 2011, $20,000
  • Wildlands Network Conservation Communication Grant, 2011, $10,000
  • High Lonesome Ranch Trophic Cascades Research Grant, 2009 – 2012, $1,110,000
  • Sandhill Crane Literary Fellowship, 2010 – 2012, $5,000
Selected Publications: 

Peer-Reviewed Publications:


  1. Eisenberg, C. 2012. Complexity of Food Web Interactions in a Large Mammal System (Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University), 238 pp.
  2. Eisenberg, C. 2006. Dire Wolves: Gray Wolf Recovery and Wolf-Human Interactions in the Northern Rocky Mountains (Prescott, AZ: Prescott College), master’s thesis, 436 pp.

Refereed Scientific Journal Articles:

  1. Eisenberg, C., D. E. Hibbs, and W. J. Ripple. 2015. Effects of predation risk on elk landscape use in a wolf-dominated system. Canadian Journal of Zoology 93:99-111.
  2. Beschta, R. L., C. Eisenberg, J. Laundre, W. J. Ripple, and T. J. Rooney. 2014. Predation risk, elk, and aspen: tests of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Comment. Ecology 95(5):2669-2679.
  3. Eisenberg, C., D. E. Hibbs, W. J. Ripple, and H. Salwasser. 2014. Context dependence of elk vigilance and wolf predation risk. Canadian Journal of Zoology 92:727-736.
  4. Eisenberg, C., S. T. Seager, and D. E. Hibbs. 2013. Wolf, elk, and aspen food web relationships: Context and complexity. Forest Ecology and Management 299:70-80.
  5. Seager, S. T., C. Eisenberg, and S. B. St. Clair. 2013. Patterns and consequences of ungulate herbivory on aspen in western North America. Forest Ecology and Management 299:81-90.
  6. Rogers, P., C. Eisenberg, and S. B. St. Clair. 2013. Resilience in quaking aspen: Recent advances and future needs. Forest Ecology and Management 299:1-5.

Refereed Literary Journal Articles:

  1. Eisenberg, C. 2015. Walking the Wolf Trail. Whitefish Review #17.
  2. Eisenberg, C. 2015. The Rewilding: The Trophic Tango. About Place. #10
  3. Eisenberg, C. 2015. The Bear Mother. Leaf Litter. #5.
  4. Eisenberg, C. 2014. Earth Household. Whitefish Review. #16.
  5. Eisenberg, C. 2014. Environmental writing and the ecology of hope. Flyway Journal of Writing and Environment.
  6. Eisenberg C. 2011. The High ridge. Platte Valley Review.
  7. Eisenberg, C. 2011. The Stoney Flats grizzly. Platte Valley Review.
  8. Eisenberg, C. 2010. The ecology of fear. Whitefish Review. #9
  9. Eisenberg, C. 2010. Minnow Stahkoo. NILAS (Nature in Legend and Stories) Annual Review.
  10. Eisenberg, C. 2010. Hejira. Platte Valley Review.
  11. Eisenberg, C. 2008. The literary Leopold. Flyway: Journal of Writing and Environment. 11.2-12.1.

In Preparation and Review – Refereed Scientific Journals:

  1. Eisenberg, C., D. E. Hibbs, P. Doescher, and W. J. Ripple. [in preparation] Aspen response to top-down (wolf) and bottom-up (fire) effects. Canadian Journal of Forest Research.
  2. Eisenberg, C., C. Edson, and D. Honnold [in preparation] Transboundary Conservation of Large Carnivores in Western North America: Science and Public Policy. Conservation Biology.
  3. Chandler, M., S. Rullman, J. Cousins, N. Esmail, E. Begin, G. Venicx, C. Eisenberg, and M. Studer. [in review]. 2016. Ecological and social outcomes from 7 years of citizen science evaluation: An Earthwatch case study. Biological Conservation.
  4. Kirkland, Maire, C. Eisenberg, J. Axmacher, and R. Bodmer [in preparation]. Sustainable wildlife extraction by the Kukama-Kukamilla people of the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, Peru. Biological Conservation.
  5. Boukili, V. K. S., D. P. Bebber, T. Mortimer, G. Venicx, D. Lefcourt, M. Chandler, and C. Eisenberg [in preparation]. Testing the assumptions of an urban forest ecosystem services model with direct measurements of tree growth.

Books and Book Chapters:

Eisenberg book jacket

  1. Eisenberg, C. 2016. “Conserving Biological Diversity,” in J. F. Franklin, K. N. Johnson, and D. Johnson, eds., Ecological Forest Management. Chicago: Waveland Press.
  2. Eisenberg, C., The Carnivore Way, Coexisting with and Conserving America’s Predators. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2014. more info
  3. Eisenberg, C., "Quantifying Wildness." in P. Hasbach, and P. Hahn, Eds., Rediscovery of the Wild. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 2013.
  4. Eisenberg, C., "Lessons from 763," in T. Fleischner, ed., The Way of Natural History. San Antonio: Trinity University Press, 2011.
  5. Eisenberg, C., The Wolf’s Tooth: Keystone Predators, Trophic Cascades, and Biodiversity. April 2010. Washington, DC: Island Press, 248 p. more info
  6. Eisenberg, C., “Keystone Species,” in The Encyclopedia of American Environmental History. Houston: University of Houston, 2009.

In Preparation and Review – Books and Book Chapters:

  1. Eisenberg, C. [in preparation] Taking the Heat: Wildlife, Food Webs, and Extinction in a Warming World (Washington, DC: Island Press).
  2. Eisenberg, C. [in preparation] Conserving biological diversity. In K. N. Johnson, J. F. Franklin, and D. Johnson, eds. Forest Management: an Ecological Forestry Approach (Chicago: Waveland Press).

Magazine Articles:

  1. Eisenberg, C. July 2014. Corridor Ecology: Carnivore Migration Patterns. Utne Reader.
  2. Eisenberg, C. 2012. “Acts of Faith,” Connections.
  3. Eisenberg, C., “Hunting and the Land Ethic,” Fair Chase, Summer 2011.
  4. Eisenberg, C., Living in a Landscape of Fear: How Predators Impact an Ecosystem, Scientific American August 13, 2010.
  5. Eisenberg, C., “Creating Landscapes of Hope,” Wild Earth Winter 2009.
  6. Eisenberg, C., “The Varmint Question,” Fair Chase Fall 2008.

News Media Coverage:

  1. Gould, J. 2015. Non-profit organizations: Scientists on a mission. Nature 527: 265-266.
  2. Big Sky Journal, “Local Knowledge: Stories in the Landscape – A Walk on the Wild Side with Scientists and Author Cristina Eisenberg,” by Brian Schott, September 2014.
  3. Corvallis Gazette-Times, “Making Room for Predators,” by Bennet Hall, May 21, 2014.
  4. Sacramento Bee, “Top-predator-down environment damage rule, not exception”, August 2, 2011.
  5. NPR, KSFR Radio Café, Interview, The Wolf’s Tooth: Keystone Predators, Trophic Cascades, and Biodiversity, August 1, 2011
  6. Eugene Weekly, “Not So Big, Not So Bad: Wolves return to Oregon, cause a ruckus in Congress,” April 14, 2011
  7. NPR, KUER, Interview, “The Wolf’s Tooth,” February 9, 2011
  8. NPR “Biologist Studies Wolves’ Possible Return to Colorado,” June 17, 2010
  9. CBS News, "Scientists Study Possible Signs of Wolves in State", May 24, 2010
  10. Corvallis Gazette Times, "OSU biologist: Return of top predators key to ecology", April 23, 2010
  11. National Geographic, "Wolf Wars", March 2010
  12. LA Times, "Rumors of wolves have some howling", March 8, 2010
  13. Denver Post, "Wolf pack report raises doubts, fears", March 3, 2010
  14. High Country News, "Prodigal dogs", February 2010

Selected Presentations:

  1. October 19, 2015, The Wildlife Society Annual Meeting, Winnipeg, MB, Contributed Paper: Effects of Prescribed Fire on Aspen and Grassland Restoration in a Wolf, Elk, and Aspen System in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.
  2. October 17, 2015, Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, annual conference, Westborough, MA, Keynote Speech: Tracking Predators and Their Prey: Noninvasive Wildlife Tracking Methods.
  3. August 27, 2015, Society for Ecological Restoration Annual Meeting, Manchester, UK, Invited Panelist: Beyond Science Speak: Using the Power of Story to Bridge the Science/Public Communication Chasm.
  4. August 26, 2015, Society for Ecological Restoration Annual Meeting, Manchester, UK, Contributed Paper: Effects of Prescribed Fire on Aspen and Grassland Restoration in a Wolf, Elk, Aspen System in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.
  5. June 25, 2015, US Congress, House Natural Resources Committee, Washington, DC, Invited Congressional Briefing: The Endangered Species Act, Keystone Species, and Ecological Resiliency.
  6. June 4, 2015, Society of Wetland Scientists Annual Meeting, Providence, RI, Invited Paper: Using Apex Predators and Trophic Cascades Mechanisms to Create Resilient Wetlands in a Warming World.
  7. May 15, 2015, Smithsonian Conservation Immersion Seminar, Front Royal, VA, Keynote Speech: Human-Wildlife Coexistence and Ecological Resilience in a Warming World.
  8. May 15, 2015, Smithsonian Conservation Immersion Seminar, Front Royal, VA, Invited Panelist: Living with Wolves in North America: Challenges and Promises.
  9. November 19, 2014, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA Pritzker Lecture, The Carnivore Way: Conserving America’s Predators
  10. November 8, 2014, Earthwatch Citizen Science Summit, Harvard Science Center, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, Lecture, Using Citizen Science to Restore Wolves and Fire in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.
  11. October 16, 2014, Earthwatch, UK, Royal Geographic Society, Oxford University, London, UK, Lecture and debate, Rewilding the UK.
  12. October 15, 2014, Earthwatch, UK, Lecture, Oxford, UK, Tracking Fire and Wolves through Canada.
  13. October 7, 2014, Town Hall, Seattle, Lecture, The Carnivore Way.
  14. September 11, 2014, Western Environmental Law Center, Holter Museum of Art, Helena, MT, The Carnivore Way.
  15. August 30, 2014, Adirondack Wildlife Refuge, Nature Conservancy, Wilmington, NY, Keynote Speech, Wolves as Keystone Predators.
  16. July 16, 2014, North American Conference Conservation Biology, Missoula, MT, Paper, Coexisting with Large Carnivores in Western North America in a Warming World: Science and Policy
  17. June 9, 2014, Terra Magazine, Science Pub, Corvallis, OR, Lecturer, Reflections on the 50th anniversary of the Wilderness Act
  18. March 1, 2014, Public Interest Environmental Law Conference, Eugene, OR, Invited Panelist, Large Carnivore Restoration in the West: A Transboundary Approach to Creating Connectivity
  19. February 21, 2014, University of Oregon, Natural History Museum Lecture Series, Eugene, OR, Lecturer, The Return of the Wolf to Oregon: Ecology, Conservation, and Coexistence.
  20. October 19 and 20, 2013, Reading, UK, UK Wolf Conservation Trust Annual Symposium, Featured Speaker: The Wolf’s Tooth: Ecological Effects of Wolves and Global Wolf Conservation
  21. October 9, 2013, Milwaukee, WI, The Wildlife Society Annual Conference, Contributed Paper: Context Dependence of Elk Vigilance Behavior and Wolf Predation Risk
  22. October 8, 2013, Madison, WI, Society for Ecological Restoration, Biennial Conference, Invited Paper and Panel Moderator: Restoring Ecosystems with Fire and Apex Predation
  23. October 3, 2013, Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution, Featured Speaker: Saving the Wolf: Conserving Wolves, Grizzlies, and Other Predators in North
  24. October 2, 2013, Washington, DC, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Featured Speaker: From Wolves to Songbirds: Keystone Predators and Trophic Cascades
  25. September 24, 2013, Flagstaff, AZ,Museum of Northern Arizona, Keynote Speaker: Thinking Like a Mountain: Wolves, Deer, Elk, and Aspen in the West
  26. September 27, 2013, Waterton, AB, Waterton Wildlife Festival, Keynote Speaker: The Carnivore Way: Conserving Wolves, Grizzlies, and Other Predators in North America
  27. July 30, 2013, Apgar, MT, Glacier National Park Annual Science Day, Invited Speaker: The Complex Food Web of Fire, Aspen, Elk and Wolves in Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park
  28. July 22, 2013, Denali, AK, Murie Science and Learning Center, Invited Lecturer: Carnivore Management from Alaska to Mexico
  29. March 12, 2013, Bend, OR, High Desert Museum, Natural History Pub, Featured lecturer: The mark of the Wolf’s Tooth: Ecological Effects of Wolves in Oregon.
  30. February 24, 2013, Kalispell, MT, Museum at Central School, White Lecture Series, Featured lecturer: Thinking Like a Mountain, the Mark of the Wolf’s Tooth in Ecosystems.
  31. February 7, 2013, Lock Haven University, Biology Department, Featured lecturer: The Wolf’s Tooth: Keystone Predators, Trophic Cascades, and Biodiversity.
  32. January 9, 2013, Rowe, Massachusetts, Women & Tracking Conference, Keynote Speaker: Tracking Science.
  33. October 25, 2012, Salem, OR, Straub Environmental Lecture Series, Featured lecturer: The Wolf’s Tooth: Keystone Predators, Trophic Cascades, and Biodiversity.
  34. October 20, 2012, Julian, CA, California Wolf Center, Keynote Speaker: The Rewilding: The Wolf’s Return to the West.
  35. October 17, 2012, Portland, OR, TWS Annual Meeting, Scientific Paper: Effects of Predation Risk Assessment on Elk Resource Selection as a Function of Wolf Abundance.
  36. August 8, 2012, Portland, OR, ESA Annual Meeting, Scientific Paper: How Predators Influence Communities: Fire, Wolves, Elk, and Aspen Trophic Cascades: Case Studies from the Rocky Mountains.
  37. July 12, 2012, Denali National Park, AK, Murie Center, Featured lecturer: Lessons from Our Elders: Murie and Leopold on Carnivore Conservation in the National Parks.
  38. June 28, 2012, DeBeque, CO, Restoring Resilience in Aspen Symposium, Scientific Paper: Wolf, elk, and aspen food web relationships: Context and complexity.
  39. April 19, 2012, Shephardstown, VA, National Conservation Training Center, Featured Lecturer: The Wolf’s Tooth: Keystone Predators, Trophic Cascades, and Biodiversity.
  40. April 16, 2012, Washington, DC, World Wildlife Federation, Featured speaker: Using Apex Predators and Fire to Create More Resilient Ecosystems.
  41. March 22, 2012, Page, AZ, BLM Colorado Plateau Native Plants Meeting, High Lonesome Ranch: Science and Stewardship.
  42. March 2, 2012, Eugene, OR, Public Interest Environmental Law Conference, Wolves and the ESA: A Keystone Perspective.
  43. September 23, 2011, Glacier National Park, Montana House, Featured speaker: Wolves, Fire, Elk, and Aspen in Glacier National Park.
  44. September 17, 2011, DeBeque, Colorado, The High Lonesome Ranch, Theodore Roosevelt Conservation Partners, Speaker: Using Trophic Cascades to Create Healthy, Resilient Landscapes
  45. August 24, 2011, Merida, Yucatan, Society for Ecological Restoration International Conference, Panelist: Writing Science: What Scientists See But Can’t Say
  46. August 23, 2011, Merida, Yucatan, Society for Ecological Restoration International Conference Panelist: The High Lonesome Ranch: Restoring Carnivores, Corridors, and Connectivity on Private Lands
  47. July 25, 2011, Wildlands Network/High Lonesome Ranch Private Landowners Meeting, Speaker: The High Lonesome Ranch: Landscape-Scale Conservation Place-Based Applied Science
  48. July 8, 2011, Gunnison Colorado, Rocky Mountain Biological Station, Guest Lecturer: Context Dependence of Trophic Cascades Involving Wolves, Elk, and Aspen
  49. May 13, 2011, Corvallis Oregon, Oregon State University, COF, TEK Conference, Speaker: Minnow Stahkoo: What Scientists See but Can’t Say
  50. March 11, 2011, Glacier National Park, Montana, National Park Conservation Association Keynote speaker: The Wolf’s Tooth: Trophic Cascades and Biodiversity
  51. January 6, 2011, Rowe, Massachusetts, Women & Tracking Conference, Keynote Speaker: Tracking Science
  52. November 17, 2010, DeBeque, Colorado, Society for Ecological Restoration, corridor ecology symposium, Keynote Speaker: Landscape-scale Carnivore Conservation in Colorado
  53. November 11, 2010, Whitefish, Montana, The Whitefish Review speaker series, Keynote speaker: The Wolf’s Tooth
  54. October 25, 2010, Seattle, Town Hall Seattle, speaker series, Keynote speaker: Wolves as Ecosystem Regulators
  55. October 9, 2010, Rhinelander, Wisconsin, International Association of Professional Trackers, annual meeting Keynote speaker: Tracking Science
  56. July 5, 2010, Edmonton, Alberta, Society for Conservation Biology, annual meeting, Invited panelist: Trophic Cascades Involving Humans, Wolves, Elk, and Aspen: Defining an Ecologically Effective Wolf Population
  57. June 14, 2010, Ashland, Oregon, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Pacific Division, annual meeting, Plenary lecture: Frontiers in Ecological Theory: The Role of Wolves as Keystone Predators
  58. December 6, 2009, Houston, Texas, Boone and Crockett Club, Annual Meeting, Invited Panelist: The North American Model, The Land Ethic and the North American Model
  59. November 18, 2009, Denver, Colorado, Defenders of Wildlife Carnivores 2009 Conference, Invited Panelist: Trophic Cascades Involving Humans, Wolves, Elk, and Aspen: Defining an Ecologically Effective Wolf Population
  60. July 20, 2009, Polebridge, Montana, North Fork Preservation Association Annual Meeting, Presentation: Wolf Conservation and the Ecology of Fear
  61. June 21, 2009, University of Montana, Geography Department Field School, Presentation: Trophic Cascades Involving Humans, Wolves, Elk, and Aspen in the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem
  62. June 5, 2009, Victoria, British Columbia, Association for Literature and the Environment Bi-Annual Conference, Presentation: Creating Landscapes of Hope: Relationships between Humans, Wildlife, and the Landscape
  63. May 6, 2009, Prescott, Arizona, Prescott College Colloquium, Research Field Methods in Ecology
  64. April 1, 2009, Corvallis, Oregon, Oregon State University, College of Forestry Seminar, Presentation: Public Policy and Large Carnivores
  65. March 4, 2009, Portland, Oregon, George Wright Society Bi-Annual Meeting, Presentation: The Varmint Question: Was Aldo Leopold Right About Wolves?
  66. December 6, 2008, Houston, Texas, Boone and Crockett Club, Annual Meeting, Invited Panelist: Wolves, Ecology, and Management
  67. February 19, 2008, Des Moines, Iowa, Organization: Iowa State University, Wildness Symposium, panelist, Minnow Stahkoo: Trophic Cascades Research and Cultural Issues
  68. October 21, 2007, The Aldo Leopold Legacy Center, Baraboo, WI, The Aldo Leopold Foundation, Shack Seminar Series, invited lecturer, Was Aldo Leopold Right About Wolves?