OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

Needham, Mark D.

Associate Professor and Gene D. Knudson Chair in Forestry Education

Director of the Natural Resources, Tourism, and Recreation (NATURE) Studies Lab

Editor of the journal Human Dimensions of Wildlife

Office Location: 
204 Richardson Hall
Phone: 
541-737-1498
Fax: 
541-737-5814
Email Address: 
Specialty: 

Human Dimensions of Natural Resources, Recreation, Tourism, and Wildlife

Educational Background: 
  • B.A., Geography and Environmental Studies, 1999, University of Victoria, Canada
  • M.A., Geography, 2002, University of Victoria, Canada
  • Ph.D., Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism, 2006, Colorado State University

Awards:

Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society Graduate Students’ Award for Outstanding Faculty for 2013
College of Forestry Dean's Award for Outstanding Teaching and Advising Professor for 2009
College of Forestry Dean's Award for Outstanding Research Professor for 2007

Courses: 
  • FES 251 Recreation Resource Management (Fall)
  • FES 453/553 Nature-based Tourism (Spring)
  • FES 523 Quantitative Analysis in Social Science (Spring)
Research Interests: 
Human dimensions of natural resources, recreation, tourism, and wildlife; social psychology of natural resource issues; marine and terrestrial parks and protected areas; ski area management; norms and standards of quality; carrying capacity and crowding; specialization; conflict; risk; social trust; survey design and quantitative methods
Research Support: 
  1. Needham, M. D., & Cramer, L. A. Resident perceptions of the Oregon marine reserve system. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2014-2016.
  2. Needham, M. D., & Shelby, B. Visitors and use levels on the Lower Sandy Wild and Scenic River. US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and Oregon Parks and Recreation Department. 2013-2015.
  3. Needham, M. D., & Howe, G. T. Forest health biotechnologies: What are the drivers of public acceptance? US Endowment for Forestry and Communities and The Forest Health Initiative. 2013-2015.
  4. Needham, M. D., & Cramer, L. A. Coastal resident perceptions of proposed marine reserves in Oregon. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2012-2013.
  5. Szuster, B. W., Mora, C., & Needham, M. D. Social carrying capacity of manta ray night dive sites in West Hawaii. University of Hawaii College of Social Sciences. 2011-2013.
  6. White, E. M., Rosenberger, R. S., & Needham, M. D. Oregon state park economic contribution analysis and survey support. Oregon Parks and Recreation Department. 2011-2013.
  7. Needham, M. D., & Morzillo, A. Landowner incentives and tolerances for managing beaver impacts in Oregon. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board. 2009-2011.
  8. Rosenberger, R. S., & Needham, M. D. Oregon State Parks visitor use survey: Survey methods pilot test project. Oregon Parks and Recreation Department. 2009-2011.
  9. Needham, M. D., & Rosenberger, R. S. Community benefits of recreation, leisure, and urban proximate public lands. USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station. 2009-2013.
  10. Needham, M. D., & Szuster, B. W. A recreation management-by-objectives framework for Hawaii's coastal resources: Applications at Kealakekua Bay and Molokini Shoal. Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources, Department of Land and Natural Resources. 2008-2010.
  11. Falk, J. F., & Needham, M. D. Measuring the impact of a science center on its community. Noyce Foundation. 2008-2010.
  12. Needham, M. D. Effects of concessions and commercial operations of forest recreation and tourism use. USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station. 2006-2009.
  13. Rosenberger, R. S., & Needham, M. D. Public support, demand, and potential revenue for recreation on the McDonald-Dunn Forest. Oregon State University College Forests. 2008-2010.
  14. Needham, M. D. Visitor characteristics and preferences at the Tillamook Forest Center. Oregon Department of Forestry, Tillamook Forest Center. 2009.
  15. Needham, M. D. Visitor tradeoffs and preferences for conditions at Henry Rierson Spruce Run Campground in Clatsop State Forest, Oregon. Oregon Department of Forestry. 2007-2008.
  16. Needham, M. D., & Tynon, J. A multi-stakeholder approach to carrying capacity and management of nearshore reefs in Hawaii. Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative Research Program and Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources, Department of Land and Natural Resources. 2007-2008.
  17. Needham, M. D. Visitors' experiences and preferences at Lost Lake in Clatsop State Forest, Oregon. Oregon Department of Forestry. 2006-2007.
Current/Recent Programs: 
  1. Public acceptance of using biotechnologies to address forest health threats such as chestnut blight, and climate change.
  2. Resident perceptions of the new marine reserve system in Oregon.
  3. Recreation carrying capacity and crowding on the Sandy River in Oregon.
  4. Crowding and conflict associated with manta ray night dive sites in Kona, Hawaii.
  5. Landowner incentives and tolerances for managing beaver impacts in Oregon.
  6. Impacts of survey mode on recreationists' reported experiences in Oregon.
  7. Community benefits of recreation, leisure, and urban proximate public lands in Alaska.
  8. Carrying capacity and management of reefs and marine protected areas in Hawaii.
  9. Visitor experiences and preferences at Oregon Department of Forestry recreation sites.
  10. Effects of guides and outfitters on forest recreation and tourism use in Alaska.
  11. Support, demand, and potential revenue for recreation on the McDonald-Dunn Forest.
  12. Hunter responses to chronic wasting disease in eight states.
  13. Measuring the impact of science center interpretation on local communities.
  14. Visitor opinions of voluntary environmental programs at Mt. Bachelor ski area, Oregon.
Graduate Students: 
  • Joshua Petit (PhD, Forest Ecosystems and Society)
  • Andréa Kuchy (PhD, Forest Ecosystems and Society)
  • Jennifer Johnston (MS, Forest Ecosystems and Society)
Selected Publications: 
  1. Pomeranz, E. F., Needham, M. D., & Kruger, L. E. In Press, Accepted. Perceptions of stakeholders regarding wilderness and best management practices in an Alaska recreation area. Managing Leisure.
  2. Needham, M. D., Vaske, J. J., Whittaker, D., & Donnelly, M. P. 2014. Extending the encounter – norm – crowding generalization to angler evaluations of other social and resource indicators. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 19(3): 288-299.
  3. Perry, E. E., Needham, M. D., Cramer, L. A., & Rosenberger, R. S. 2014. Coastal resident knowledge of new marine reserves in Oregon: The impact of proximity and attachment. Ocean and Coastal Management, 95(1): 107-116.
  4. Kim, S. O., Shelby, B., & Needham, M. D. 2014. Effects of facility developments and encounter levels on perceptions of settings, crowding, and norms in a Korean park. Environmental Management, 53(2): 441-453.
  5. Pomeranz, E. F., Needham, M. D., & Kruger, L. E. 2013. Stakeholder perceptions of collaboration for managing nature based recreation in a coastal protected area in Alaska. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. 31(3): 23-44.
  6. Needham, M. D., & Szuster, B. W. 2013. Crowding, use levels, and social capacity issues in coastal and marine environments: Introduction to the special issue. Tourism in Marine Environments, 9(1-2): 1-4.
  7. Needham, M. D. 2013. Encounters, norms, and crowding at six coastal and marine areas in Hawaii. Tourism in Marine Environments, 9(1-2): 19-34.
  8. Pomeranz, E. F., Needham, M. D., & Kruger, L. E. 2013. Stakeholder perceptions of indicators of tourism use and codes of conduct in a coastal protected area in Alaska. Tourism in Marine Environments, 9(1-2): 95-115.
  9. Needham, M. D., & Vaske, J. J. 2013. Activity substitutability and degree of specialization among deer and elk hunters in multiple states. Leisure Sciences, 35(3): 235-255.
  10. Needham, M. D., Scott, D., & Vaske, J. J. 2013. Recreation specialization and related concepts in leisure research. Leisure Sciences, 35(3): 199-202.
  11. Needham, M. D., Ceurvorst, R. L., & Tynon, J. F. 2013. Toward an approach for measuring indicators of facility carrying capacity in outdoor recreation areas. Journal of Leisure Research, 45(3): 345-366.
  12. Falk, J. H., & Needham, M. D. 2013. Factors contributing to adult knowledge of science and technology. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 50(4): 431-452.
  13. Needham, M. D., & Little, C. M. 2013. Voluntary environmental programs at an alpine ski area: Visitor perceptions, attachment, value orientations, and specialization. Tourism Management, 35(2): 70-81.
  14. DeChenne, S. E., Enochs, L. G., & Needham, M. 2012. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics graduate teaching assistants teaching self-efficacy. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 12(4): 102-123.
  15. Ceurvorst, R. L., & Needham, M. D. 2012. Value orientations and normative evaluations of individuals visiting coral reef areas in Hawaii. Tourism in Marine Environments, 8(3): 111-126.
  16. Rosenberger, R. S., Needham, M. D., Morzillo, A. T., & Moehrke, C. 2012. Attitudes, willingness to pay, and stated values for recreation use fees at an urban proximate forest. Journal of Forest Economics, 18(4): 271-281.
  17. Zegre, S. J., Needham, M. D., Kruger, L. E., & Rosenberger, R. S. 2012. McDonaldization and commercial outdoor recreation and tourism in Alaska. Managing Leisure, 17(4): 333-348.
  18. Grimm, K. E., & Needham, M. D. 2012. Moving beyond the “I” in motivation: Attributes and perceptions of conservation volunteer tourists. Journal of Travel Research. 51(4): 488-501.
  19. Ceurvorst, R. L., & Needham, M. D. 2012. Is “acceptable” really acceptable? Comparing two scales for measuring normative evaluations in outdoor recreation. Leisure Sciences, 34(3): 272-279.
  20. Grimm, K. E., & Needham, M. D. 2012. Internet promotional material and conservation volunteer tourist motivations: A case study of selecting organizations and projects. Tourism Management Perspectives, 1(1): 17-27.
  21. Szuster, B. W., Needham, M. D., & McClure, B. P. 2011. Scuba diver perceptions and evaluations of crowding underwater. Tourism in Marine Environments. 7(3/4): 153-165.
  22. Needham, M. D., Rollins, R. B., Ceurvorst, R. L., Wood, C. J. B., Grimm, K. E., & Dearden, P. 2011. Motivations and normative evaluations of summer visitors at an alpine ski area. Journal of Travel Research. 50(6): 669-684.
  23. Little, C. M., & Needham, M. D. 2011. Skier and snowboarder motivations and knowledge related to voluntary environmental programs at an alpine ski area. Environmental Management. 48(5): 895-909.
  24. Bell, C. M., Needham, M. D., & Szuster, B. W. 2011. Congruence among encounters, norms, crowding, and management in a marine protected area. Environmental Management, 48(3): 499-513.
  25. Needham, M. D., Szuster, B. W., & Bell, C. M. 2011. Encounter norms, social carrying capacity indicators, and standards of quality at a marine protected area. Ocean and Coastal Management, 54(8): 633-641.
  26. Needham, M. D., & Szuster, B. W. 2011. Situational influences on normative evaluations of coastal tourism and recreation management strategies in Hawaii. Tourism Management, 32(4): 732-740.
  27. Falk, J. H., & Needham, M. D. 2011. Measuring the impact of a science center on its community. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(1): 1-12.
  28. Needham, M. D. 2010. Value orientations toward coral reefs in recreation and tourism settings: A conceptual and measurement approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(6): 757-772.
  29. Needham, M. D., Sprouse, L. J., & Grimm, K. E. 2009. Testing a self-classification measure of recreation specialization among anglers. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 14(6).
  30. Wiener, C. S., Needham, M. D., & Wilkinson, P. F. 2009. Hawaii’s real life marine park: Interpretation and impacts of commercial marine tourism in the Hawaiian Islands. Current Issues in Tourism, 12(5/6): 489-504.
  31. Needham, M. D., & Rollins, R. 2009. Social science, conservation, and protected areas theory. In P. Dearden & R. Rollins (Eds.), Parks and protected areas in Canada: Planning and management (3rd Edition) (pp. 135-168). Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.
  32. Vaske, J. J., Shelby, L. B., & Needham, M. D. 2009. Preparing for the next disease: The human-wildlife connection. In M. J. Manfredo, J. J. Vaske, P. J. Brown, D. J. Decker, & E. A. Duke (Eds.), Wildlife and society: The science of human dimensions (pp. 244-261). Washington, DC: Island Press.
  33. Christensen, A., Needham, M. D., & Rowe, S. 2009. Whale watchers’ past experience, value orientations, and awareness of consequences of actions on the marine environment. Tourism in Marine Environments 5(4): 271-285.
  34. Brown, R. N. K., Rosenberger, R. S., Kline, J. D., Hall, T. E., & Needham, M. D. 2008. Visitor preferences for managing wilderness recreation after wildfire. Journal of Forestry 106(1):9-16.
  35. Needham, M. D., & Vaske, J. J. 2008. Hunter perceptions of similarity and trust in wildlife agencies and personal risk associated with chronic wasting disease. Society and Natural Resources 21(3):197-214.
  36. Needham, M. D., & Vaske, J. J. 2008. Survey implementation, sampling, and weighting data. In J. J. Vaske, Survey research and analysis: Applications parks, recreation, and human dimensions (pp. 173-222). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.
  37. Needham, M. D., & Vaske, J. J. 2008. Writing and constructing surveys. In J. J. Vaske, Survey research and analysis: Applications in parks, recreation, and human dimensions (pp. 121-171). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.
  38. Vaske, J. J., & Needham, M. D. 2007. Segmenting public beliefs about conflict with coyotes in an urban recreation setting. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 25(4):79-98.
  39. Christensen, A., Rowe, S., & Needham, M. D. 2007. Value orientations, awareness of consequences, and participation in a whale watching education program in Oregon. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 12(4):275-279.
  40. Needham, M. D., Vaske, J. J., Donnelly, M. P., & Manfredo, M. J. 2007. Hunting specialization and its relationship to participation in response to chronic wasting disease. Journal of Leisure Research 39(3):413-437.
  41. Stafford, N. T., Needham, M. D., Vaske, J. J., & Petchenik, J. 2007. Hunter and nonhunter beliefs about chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(5):1739-1744.
  42. Vaske, J. J., Needham, M. D., & Cline Jr., R. C. 2007. Clarifying interpersonal and social values conflict among recreationists. Journal of Leisure Research 39(1):182-195.
  43. Needham, M. D., Vaske, J. J., & Manfredo, M. J. 2006. State and residency differences in hunters’ responses to chronic wasting disease. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 11(3):159-176.
  44. Vaske, J. J., Needham, M. D., Stafford, N. T., Green, K., & Petchenik, J. 2006. Information sources and knowledge about chronic wasting disease in Colorado and Wisconsin. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 11(3):191-202.
  45. Needham, M. D., & Vaske, J. J. 2006. Beliefs about chronic wasting disease risks across multiple states, years, and interest groups. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 11(3):215-220.
  46. Vaske, J. J., Needham, M. D., Newman, P., Manfredo, M. J., & Petchenik, J. 2006. Potential for conflict index: Hunters’ responses to chronic wasting disease. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(1):44-50.
  47. Needham, M. D., Rollins, R. B., & Vaske, J. J. 2005. Skill level and normative evaluations among summer recreationists at alpine ski areas. Leisure / Loisir: Journal of the Canadian Association for Leisure Studies 29(1):71-94.
  48. Needham, M. D., & Rollins, R. B. 2005. Interest group standards for recreation and tourism impacts at ski areas in the summer. Tourism Management 26(1):1-13.
  49. Needham, M. D., Rollins, R. B., & Wood, C. J. B. 2004. Site-specific encounters, norms and crowding of summer visitors at alpine ski areas. International Journal of Tourism Research 6(6):421-437.
  50. Needham, M. D., Vaske, J. J., & Manfredo, M. J. 2004. Hunters’ behavior and acceptance of management actions related to chronic wasting disease in eight states. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9(3):211-231.
  51. Needham, M. D., Wood, C. J. B., & Rollins, R. B. 2004. Understanding summer visitors and their experiences at the Whistler Mountain ski area, Canada. Mountain Research and Development 24(3):234-242.
  52. Needham, M. D., Rollins, R. B., & Wood, C. J. B. 2004. Stakeholders’ perceptions of bear viewing tours at an alpine ski area in the summer. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9(2):153-156.
  53. Needham, M. D., & Rollins, R. B. 2003. The lure of summer: A study at Whistler shows what visitors love about the mountains. Ski Area Management 42(2):28-29.
Selected Theses: 

Elizabeth (Bess) Perry. 2013. Perceptions of protection: Coastal resident cognitions concerning new marine reserves in Oregon. MS Thesis. Forest Ecosystems and Society.

Wesley Mouw. 2013. Encounters, norms, crowding, management, and behavioral responses of visitors at coastal state parks in Oregon. MS Thesis. Forest Ecosystems and Society.

Lisa Prendergast. 2012. Developing a strategic conservation project for the Oregon Coast Aquarium. MS Thesis. Marine Resource Management.

Emily Pomeranz. 2011. Direct stakeholder perceptions of collaboration, indicators, and compliance associated with the wilderness best management practices in Tracy Arm-Fords Terror Wilderness, Alaska. MS Thesis. Forest Ecosystems and Society.

Kathryn Hawes. 2011. Undesignated trail monitoring and education at the Cape Perpetua Scenic Area. MS Thesis. Sustainable Natural Resources.

Kerry Grimm. 2010. Conservation volunteer tourism at a reserve in Ecuador: Effects of perceptions, discourse, and motivations on actions and human-environment relations. Ph.D. Dissertation, Environmental Sciences.

Robyn Ceurvorst. 2010. Methodological and managerial applications of the structural norm approach to social and facility capacity indicators in Hawaii's coastal recreation areas. Ph.D. Dissertation, Forest Ecosystems and Society.

Caitlin Bell. 2010. Encounter norms of snorkelers and scuba divers at Molokini, Hawaii: Methodological and managerial applications. MS Thesis. Forest Ecosystems and Society.

Christopher Little. 2010. Voluntary environmental programs at an alpine ski area: Influence of recreationists' knowledge, motivations, attachment, value orientations, and specialization. MS Thesis, Forest Ecosystems and Society.

Sera Janson. 2008. Applying the McDonaldization thesis and norm activation model to examine trends and effects of commercial outdoor recreation and tourism in Juneau, Alaska. MS Thesis, Forest Ecosystems and Society.